The Races of Oceania – Partial List of Illustrations, Section 1

Map of the Races of Oceania and Australasia
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Map of Pacific Islands Groups
General Survey of the Group
Image Title Image Location Link
State club from the Marquesas The Indians of Columbus
State club from the Marquesas The Indians of Columbus
State club from the Marquesas The Indians of Columbus
Araucanian man and woman Racial resemblances of the people of Oceania to Malays and Indians
Maori girl Racial resemblances of the people of Oceania to Malays and Indians
Bakairi girl from the Kulishu river Racial resemblances of the people of Oceania and America
Boy of New Ireland Racial resemblances of the people of Oceania and America
Men of Ponapé in the Carolines Ethnographic Relationships
Polynesian insignia of rank The great groups; Oceanians, Malays with Malagasies, Australians and Americans
Polynesian insignia of rank – detail The great groups; Oceanians, Malays with Malagasies, Australians and Americans
Dyak woman of Borneo The Malayo-Polynesians
Man of New South Wales The vacant space between Easter Island and Peru

 

The Races of the Pacific and Their Migrations
Image Title Image Location Link
Polynesian Weapons and Costume The Island Groups
Dancing Hats – Cook or Society Islands Their Climate
Taro Their Cultivated Plants
Coco and Sago Palms Their Cultivated Plants
Boat of the Hermit Islands Number of the population, its decrease and shifting
Sepulchral monument in Ponapé, Caroline Islands Traces of denser population and of civilization
Boat of Niue, Savage Islands Involuntary migrations in the Pacific
Boat of the Mortlock Islands, with outrigger and sail of rush-matting Famine, war, and other grounds of emigration and immigration
Wooden baler, New Zealand Shipbuilding resource limitations
Wooden baler, New Guinea Ship design
Ornamental gorget – Tahiti Ship design
Water bottle – Fiji Shipbuilding comparisons
Outrigged boat, New Britain Shipbuilding comparisons
Wooden baler, New Zealand Ship navigation
Stick chart, Marshall Islands Orientation
Boat of the Luzon Tagals Trading Journeys
A Tagal Village: Luzon in the Phillipines Trading Journeys
Bread-fruit tree showing inflorescence and fruit Migrations in mythology
Thakombau, the last king of Fiji Legends of migrations
Rattan cuirass, throwing-sticks of dark wood, and bark belt, from Kaiser Wilhelm’s Land Community of speech
Feather mask – Hawaii Legend of Hawaiki
Carved boat from New Zealand The New Zealanders’ songs
Feather masks – Hawaii Legends of migrations
Jade battle-axes and jade hatchet Legends of migrations
Axes from the D’Entrecasteaux Islands Polynesians in Melanesia and Micronesia
Feather helmet – Hawaii Ethnographical groups in the Pacific
God of dances in the form of a double paddle, toothed club from Tutuila, ancient club from Tonga, short clubs from Easter Island Ethnographical groups in the Pacific
Sumatran prahu Ethnographical groups in the Pacific
Carved wooden plaques, used as stamps, from the Fiji Islands Ethnographical groups in the Pacific
Man of New South Wales Genealogy of the Australians

General Survey of the Races of Oceania

The position of the Pacific Ocean in history

Since the, Pacific ocean lies between the eastern and western portions of the inhabited earth, the inhabitants of its islands appear in a general survey as the instruments of an important ethnographical connection. From its western border we can follow Asiatic traces far towards the east in a gradual transition across the islands. They grow fainter as we go east, but some remain even in the most eastern islets of Polynesia, and some are found again on the opposite shore, especially in those districts of North-west America which are distinguished by points of agreement with Polynesia.

It has been pointed out in the first section of our introduction how closely the inhabitants of the Pacific islands are connected with the Americans by the stone-period civilization, which is common and fundamental to the eastern half of mankind, as well as by that inclusion in the Mongolian race, which applies to by far the greater part of them. This connection is one of the most important facts in the ethnographical distribution of the human race as it now exists.

It has been said that the key to the greatest problems of ethnography is to be found in America. If we can succeed in bringing the inhabitants of this the largest and most isolated island of the world into connection with the rest of mankind, then in any case the unity of the human race is established. But the connection can only be sought by way of the Pacific, for ancient America looks westward. From this side America must have been discovered long before the Northmen found their way to its shores from the east.

Map of the Races of Oceania and Australasia
[Click on picture for higher resolution (1.1Mb)

Pacific Islands wall map

Among the peculiarities of the inhabitants of Guanahani which most astonished Columbus, was their lack of iron, as he noted in his log-book as long ago as 13th October 1492. No subsequent discovery has succeeded in putting this significant fact of old American, and at the same time of Oceanian, ethnography in another light. With the exception of a strip in the north-west, which became acquainted with iron from Asia, America was, when discovered, still in the stone age. Even its more civilized races, while producing highly artistic work in gold, silver, copper, and bronze, use weapons and implements of stone.

When Africa was discovered by the Europeans it was manufacturing iron right away to the Hottentot country. The races of the Malay Archipelagowrought artistically in iron. In Northern Asia only one strip on the coast where their traffic was small was without iron. Thus the domain of the ironless races lies on the eastern border of the inhabited earth; it embraces Australia, the Pacific Islands, the Arctic region, and America.

Absence of iron implies limitation to the use of stone, bone, or wood, for imperfect weapons and utensils implies, too, exclusion from the possibility of such industrial progress as is based upon iron and steel. Within the line which includes the ironless races there is to be observed also the want of the most valuable domestic animals; oxen, buffaloes, sheep, goats, elephants, camels, are here unknown, and consequently there is no cattle-breeding.